Whether it’s in the stars, drawn on a cave wall or in the newest visual content, we add such meaning to our communication through the use and interpretation of signs. It has become possible to map the world on the head of a pin, or even a smaller space, as shown here: Art of Science: World on the Head of a Pin, but, most details get left out. In the cartographic process as outlined above, the fundamental component in generating a map to depict the environment is itself a process – the process of map abstraction. Cartography is the art and science of making We call these primitives graphic variables because each represents a “graphic” (visible) feature of a map symbol that can be “varied.” While different cartographers have identified a slightly different set of primitives, most agree that there are somewhere between 7 and 12 of them from which all maps symbolization can be constructed. The process of map abstraction includes at least five major (interdependent) steps: (a) selection, (b) classification, (c) simplification, (d) exaggeration, and (e) symbolization (Muehrcke and Muehrcke, 1992). As an example, Figure 3.10 uses a 4-class purple sequential scheme to depict Avian Influenza, with a focus on Eurasia. Today, maps can be produced easily through a wide range of online tools by anyone with access to the Internet. cartography Science and art of making maps and charts. Currently there is no international standard for emergency mapping symbology which has meant that various nations have created their own national symbology set. Through their provision of a viewpoint on the world, maps influence our spatial behavior and spatial preferences and shape how we view the environment. The map in Figure 3.13 employs a qualitative color scheme of three different colors (red, blue, green) to represent different categories (coke, pop, and soda respectively). It has become possible to map the world on the head of a pin, or even a smaller space, as shown here: Art of Science: World on the Head of a Pin, but, most details get left out.Even to achieve a screen-sized map of the world on your computer, map abstraction is fundamental to representing entities in a legible manner. Applications of Topology, TIGER, and Geocoding, Chapter 7: Remote Sensing: Imaging Our World, Chapter 9: Geo-Analytics: From Data to Answers, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Meteorology and Atmospheric Science, Earth and Environmental Systems Institute, iMPS in Renewable Energy and Sustainability Policy Program Office, BA in Energy and Sustainability Policy Program Office, 2217 Earth and Engineering Sciences Building, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802. Figure 3.6: Incidence rate of prostate cancer per 100,000 persons per county in Pennsylvania, visualized using three classes (left) and five classes (right). Symbol Symbol Name Meaning / definition Example; P(A): probability function: probability of event A: P(A) = 0.5: P(A ∩ B): probability of events intersection: probability that of events A and B For example, red is a strong color that evokes a passionate response in humans. Finally, users make decisions and take action based upon what they find in the map. Map symbols are constructed from more primitive “graphic variables, the elements that make up symbols. Figure 3.7: Simplification of cities in the western United States by deleting cities with populations below 500,000. Credit: Jennifer M. Smith, © The Pennsylvania State University; Data from U.S.G.S. These symbols are commonly used to describe different features mapped. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, cartography builds on the premise that reality can be modeled in ways that communicate spatial information effectively. Symbology, in the context of Cartographic design, is the use of graphical techniques to represent geographic information on a map. According to semiotics, map symbols are "read" by map users when they make a connection between the graphic mark on the map (the sign), a general concept (the interpretant), and a particular feature of the real world (the referent). Generically, a symbol is an object, picture, written word, sound, or particular mark that represents something else by association, resemblance, or convention. Compatibility Issues: In the Illustrator series, there is a real difference between versions 5-8 and 9. By convention, each of these "graphic variables" is used to represent particular categories of data variation. Sequential color schemes should be employed when data is arranged from a low to a high data value (e.g., data for mean annual income by county in Pennsylvania). This Symbology Standard was developed by the Federal Geographic Data Committee's Homeland Security Working Group (FGDC HSWG). For example, thick blue line (sign) = major river (interpretant), and this thick blue line = The Colorado River (referent). One characterization of this process is depicted in Figure 3.4 below. There are many kinds of data classification used on maps; we will focus specifically on classification of numerical map data in more detail later on in the chapter. Adapted from DiBiase, David, The Nature of Geographic Information (http://natureofgeoinfo.org), with contributions by Jim Sloan and Ryan Baxter, John A. Dutton e-Education Institute, College of Earth and Mineral Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University. EMS is part of efforts to create a Common Operational Picture both with emergency management agencies and with the public at large. This usually involves the use of map symbols to visualize selected properties of geographic features that are not naturally visible, such as temperature, language, or population. The symbols are tailored to Canadian requirements for situational awareness reporting, first response, natural hazards assessment, public alerting, and critical infrastructure protection. Registered Penn State students should return now take the self-assessment quiz about Cartographic Process. What distinguishes the EMS symbol set is its design, which follows a set of design principles that make it particularly suitable for Web applications by both trained and untrained personnel alike. Examples of custom symbols common in maps. The cylinder may then be “unrolled” into a flat surface, resulting in a rectangular map. The John A. Dutton e-Education Institute is the learning design unit of the College of Earth and Mineral Sciences at The Pennsylvania State University. Derived from "cadastre" meaning a register of land quantities, values, and ownership used levying taxes, the term may properly be applied to surveys of a similar nature outside the public lands, such surveys are more commonly called "land surveys" or "property surveys." [6], Map symbols are created by controlling Visual variables such as color, shape, and size; the range of such variables was set forth by Jaques Bertin and subsequent cartographers. A special system of characters—the cartographic symbols, which are summarized and systematized in a relatively small number of cartographic methods of presentation—… As a preview of some of the things map readers must consider about classification, the example below shows one dataset for the rate of prostate cancer by county in Pennsylvania mapped using a different number of classes. The world of cartography is a complicated one. Why? While most maps you will see use color to depict data (as well as in aesthetic ways), many maps do not use color in the most logical ways in relation to the data being depicted. Slocum, Terry A.; McMaster, Robert B.; Kessler, Fritz C.; Howard, Hugh H. (2009). When designing a map, the cartographer determines that a certain combination of these variables--a symbol (e.g., a dashed 0.5pt blue line)--represents a certain class of geographic feature (e.g., an intermittent stream). The standard is currently working its way through standards processes of ANSI and the Department of Homeland Security. Figure 3.5: Screenshot of San Diego Real-Time Traffic Application; to try out the map, see: Credit: © California Department of Transportation. 3. EMS is designed to support emergency management applications across Canada, including the national Multi-Agency Situation Awareness Systems (MASAS). The three categories of cartographic symbol shapes Symbols are used in cartography to communicate geographical information (generally as point, line, or area features). Map makers must delete, for instance, cities below a certain population (as done in the map on the right) in order to better serve the purpose of the map. Next, the map user reads, analyzes, and interprets the map by decoding the symbols and recognizing patterns. As illustrated in Figure 3.7, attempting to include every city in the U.S. would render the map illegible. Derived from "cadastre" meaning a register of land quantities, values, and ownership used levying taxes, the term may properly be applied to surveys of a similar nature outside the public lands, such surveys are more commonly called "land surveys" or "property surveys." [5] These symbols are commonly used to describe different features mapped. 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